A new paper from our Ware Field experimental prairie demonstrates that both seed and plug plantings maintain phylogenetic and functional diversity over time. As seeding is generally more cost-effective for prairie restoration, we recommend focusing on seeding, except where managers require immediate plant cover, or for species difficult to establish from seed.
Barak, R.S., Karimi, N., Glasenhardt, M.-C., Larkin, D.J., Williams, E.W. and Hipp, A.L. (2022), Phylogenetically and functionally diverse species mixes beget diverse experimental prairies, whether from seeds or plugs. Restoration Ecology e13737. https://doi.org/10.1111/rec.13737